Swiecka Beata, Szczecin University Management and Economics Services Faculty Comparative Economy Department
Factors of Development Retail Electronic Banking
The article is devoted to investigation of development retail electronic banking in Poland, its factors, strong points, weak points, opportunities and threats.
Статтю присвячено дослідженню розвитку роздрібних електронних банківських операцій у Польщі. Розглянуто фактори його розвитку, сильні та слабкі сторони сектора роздрібних електронних банківських операцій.1. Banking system development in Poland Every country has its own system of banks. Their variety, structure as well as range and the modus operandi give the specific character to the banking systems of individual states. Before the Second World War, banking system in Poland was relatively well developed. In 1938 alongside the modern Polish Bank, fulfilling the central bank function as well as the role of bank of banks enjoying great prestige both at home and abroad, the great State-owned banks operated (Bank Gospodar- stwa Krajowego, National Household Bank, Panstwowy Bank Rolny - State-Owned Polish Agricultural Bank as well as Pocztowa Kasa Oszcz^d- nosci - Post Savings Fund Society), 27 private banks in form of joint stock companies (including four foreign ones), 28 bank houses, 19 credit companies, 333 municipal savings banks, 975 municipal loan and savings fund societies as well as 5597 loan co-operative societies. Immediately after the end of the war the liquidation of private banks begun and adaptation of banking structure to new constitutional order started in order to adjust it to new socio -economical and political conditions. Many banks were dissolved, others merged, competition between banks was eliminated. The bank machinery became fully subordinated to the Ministry of Finance. The Narodowy Bank Polski [7he National Bank of Poland] being the national central issue institution and commercial bank at the same time was brought into being in 1945. As the time run, The National Bank of Poland absorbed every new bank and this process continued till mid-70's. At the beginning of the eighties there were three more nationwide banks except for NBP: The Bank Hand- lowy [Commercial Bank] - dealing with international trade of Poland, The Bank Polska Kasa Opieki S.A. - operating the people's foreign exchange operations and accepting the a vista savings deposits and time deposits in foreign currencies and the Bank Gospodarki Zywnosciowej [Agricultural / Food-Processing Bank]- specialized in the agriculture credits and being an organizational headquarter that includes 1550 co-operative small- and very small-sized banks in its structure. They were then only formally independent banks, actually they were branches of the NBP's or rather of the Ministry of Finance (to which also the NBP was subordinate for many years- and the President of the National Bank of Poland was the Under-Secretary of Finances).
A kind of breakthrough took place as a result of the economic reform in 1982 resulting in appearance of the Banking Law and the Act of Law on the Statutes of the Narodowy Bank Polski [National Bank of Poland]. This Act was the one that contributed to the Narodowy Banku Polski [National Bank of Poland] becoming independent of the Ministry of Finance, and to broadening the role of the central bank in shaping the monetary- credit policy as well as to enabling banks being established in form of joint-stock companies including those with foreign capital share. As a result there were three new banks brought into existence since 1982 till 1989. But NBP was still executing its typical monobank functions through its branches, and the state- owned enterprises were linked with the central bank divisions, thus no grounds for competition in bank
and economic entities relations field were created.
1989 year is considered to be the breakthrough in the Polish banking system; this year entailed both structural and ownership changes. As a result of introducing the Banking Law and the Act of Lawon the Narodowy Bank Polski [National Polish Bank] of 1989 the Polish banking structure evolving in previous years was becoming adjusted to the market economy rules and mechanisms.
Passing of new banking law that took place in 1989 enabled adaptation of banking system to market requirements and needs. Owing to the new legislation the grounds necessary for creation of two- stage banking system were established. The Naro- dowy Bank Polski [National Polish Bank] spearheaded the Polish bankig sytem as the superior bank of the State. The NBP has been fulfilling functions of: bank of issue, bank of banks as well as bank of the state and national economy. The result of introducing new banking law as well as aiming at two- staged banking system was separation of nine state- owned banks from the NBP, which were transformed into sole-person companies of the State Treasury, acting as independent, self-financing enterprises dealing with gathering