Скористайтеся пошуком, наприклад Реферат        Грубий пошук Точний пошук
Вхід в абонемент





РПаЎ±б>юяЌЏюяяя‹ЊяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяяямҐБ9 рїо:bjbjэПэПяУџҐџҐ]яяяяяяlфффффффRRR8Љћ$¶ОО"рррSSSђ’’’’’’$У уH¶!фS№љSSS¶­ффррЙЧ­­­S®фрфрђ­Sђ­R­яVМ@ффђрВАЊОtл»ЖJRђн0x; Ћ; ђ­ффффЩ 5D5@0B =0 B5<C:=5A>: C:@0W=AL:8E 2G5=8E C @>728B>: :>A<>=02B8:8 C 4@C3V9 ?>;>28=V %% AB.;0=.!B0=>2;5==O 30;C7V. 3;O4 =0C:>2>W B0 ?@><8A;>2>W 1078.A=>2=V ?@>5:B8 . 840B=V C:@0W=AL:V 2G5=V @0:5B>1C4V2=8:8.!?8A>: 28:>@8AB0=>W ;VB5@0BC@8.!B0=>2;5==O 30;C7V. 3;O4 =0C:>2>W B0 ?@><8A;>2>W 1078. !B0=>2;5==O :>A<VG=>W 30;C7V #:@0W=8 ?>G0;>AO 2 1937 @>FV 7V AB2>@5==O 2 %0@:V2AL:><C 02V0FV9=><C V=AB8BCBV %0@:V2AL:>W @50:B82=>W 3@C?8 ?V4 :5@V2=8FB2>< . @>A:C@8, I> 74V9A=8;0 70?CA: 25;8:>W AB@0B>AD5@=>W @0:5B8 ?V4 %0@:>2><.# 1951 @>FV 70 @VH5==O< 04O=AL:>3> #@O4C 25;8:89 02B><>1V;L=89 702>4, I> 1C4CTBLAO 2 =V?@>?5B@>2AL:C, 1C2 ?5@5B2>@5=89 C 702>4 ! 586 4;O 28@>1=8FB20 @04O=AL:8E @0:5B -1. ;O @50;V70FVW ?@>5:BC ?> AB2>@5==N @0:5B8 -12 7 =>28<8 1>9>28<8 O:>ABO<8 2 1954 @>FV =0 B5@8B>@VW 702>4C 1C;> AB2>@5=5 A0<>ABV9=5 A>1;825 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@>, 3>;>2=8< :>=AB@C:B>@>< O:>3> 1C2 ?@87=0G5=89 8E09;> /=35;L. 0 ?>G0B:C 60-E @>:V2 1C2 CA?VH=> 4>25@H5=89 ?5@V>4 70@>465==O 2VBG87=O=>3> :>A<VG=>3> 0?0@0B>1C4C20==O. !B2>@5=> <>3CB=N =0C:>2C, <0B5@V0;L=>-B5E=VG=C V 28@>1=8GC 107C, 740B=0 74V9A=N20B8 @>7@>1:C V 283>B>2;5==O 2 5:A?;C0B0FV9=8E 20@V0=B0E :>A<VG=>W B5E=V:8 @V7=8E :;0AV2. 8:>@8AB0==O 4;O F8E 70?CA:V2, I> <0;0AO 2 @0:5B=8E 2V9AL:0E AB@0B53VG=>3> ?@87=0G5==O ?>;V3>==>W V :><0=4=>-28<V@N20;L=>W 1078, I> A5@V9=> 283>B>2;O;8AO 70A>1V2 282545==O, 4>1@5 ?V43>B>2;5=8E D0EV2FV2-@0:5B=8:V2 V A?5FV0;L=> AB2>@5=8E 2V9AL:>28E G0AB8=, FV;:>< A515 28?@0240;>. >728B>: @0:5B=>W ?@><8A;>2>ABV =0 #:@0W=V 48:BC20;>AO, 2 >A=>2=><C, =0O2=VABN =0C:>2>-28@>1=8G>W 1078 =0 AE>4V #:@0W=8 (=V?@>?5B@>2AL:, %0@:V2, 0?>@>66O) V 28=8:=5==O< =>2>3> B5E=VG=>3> =0?@O<:C, I> 70157?5GCT 5:A?;C0B0FVN @0:5B=8E A8AB5< 2 C<>20E 1>9>28E ?V4@>74V;V2 04O=AL:>W @<VW (28A>:>:8?;OGV :><?>=5=B8 ?0;820, AE5<0 B0=45<, I> 70157?5GCT C:@8BBO @0:5B8 2 H0EB=8E ?>78FVOE, 02B>=><=0 A8AB5<0 :5@C20==O 9 V=.). @8;048 20@V0=B0 283>B>2;O;8AO 7 4>B@8<0==O< A?5FV0;L=8E 28<>3, I> 1C;8 A?@O<>20=V =0 70157?5G5==O WE=L>W 28A>:>W O:>ABV V =04V9=>ABV. !;V4 707=0G8B8, I>, ?>G8=0NG8 7 F8E ?5@H8E :><?;5:BV2 C 20@V0=BV , C =0ABC?=V @>:8 :>;5:B82>< "><C=0@" 1C;0 283>B>2;5=0 0?0@0BC@0 1>@B>28E !# V =075<=>3> 4;O 2AVE @0:5B, O:8<8 2 ?5@V>4 7 1961 @. 4>B5?5@ 28@>1;O;8AO 2AV 70?CA:8 :>@01;V2 "!EV4", "!EV4" V "!>N7" 7 :>A<>=02B0<8 =0 1>@BV, 0 B0:>6 CAVE !, I> 282>48;8AO =0 >@1VB8 872 V WW =0ABC?=8<8 <>48DV:0FVO<8. # 1966 @>FV 702>4 ! 586 1C2 ?5@59<5=>20=89 C V245==89 <0H8=>1C4V2=89 702>4, 0 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@> ! 586 C :>=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@> V245==5 . ?>40;LH><C 2>=8 2V4V3@020;8 =5018-O:C @>;L 2 AB0=>2;5==V 30;C7V.A=>2=V ?@>5:B8 . 840B=V C:@0W=AL:V 2G5=V @0:5B>1C4V2=8:8.#:@0W=AL:V ?V4?@8T<AB20 9 >@30=V70FVW ><C=0@ , @A5=0; , >=>;VB , 2?0B>@V9AL:89 :>A<VG=89 F5=B@ 1@0;8 CG0ABL C ?V43>B>2FV  70?CA:C ?5@H>3> HBCG=>3> AC?CB=8:0 5<;V, 282545=>3> =0 >@1VBC 4 6>2B=O 1957 @>:C. # 1957 @>FV =0 107V 1>9>2>W @0:5B8 -12 1C;0 AB2>@5=0 :>A<VG=0 @0:5B0-=>AV9 >A<>A , I> 1C;0 2 5:A?;C0B0FVW 4> 1977 @>:C. ?>G0B:C 60-E @>:V2 ?V4?@8T<AB20 #:@0W=8 ?>G0;8 @>7@>1:C V 28@>1=8FB2> A8AB5< :5@C20==O, 1>@B>2>W 02B><0B8:8 9 V=H8E A8AB5< V ?@8;04V2 4;O :>A<VG=8E >1'T:BV2 V :><?;5:AV2. 12 :2VB=O 1961 @>:C @>AV9AL:0 <>48DV:>20=0 <V6:>=B8=5=B0;L=0 10;VAB8G=0 @0:5B0 -7, >1;04=0=0 ?@8;040<8 ?V4?@8T<AB2 ><C=0@ V @A5=0; , 2825;0 =0 =02:>;>75<=C :>A<VG=C >@1VBC ?5@H>3> 2 VAB>@VW ;N4AB20 :>A<>=02B0 .@VO 030@V=0. VO;L=VABL :>=AB@C:B>@AL:>3> 1N@> V245==5 C AD5@V =0C:>28E 4>A;V465=L ?>G0;0AO 2 1961 @>FV 7 @>7@>1:8 :>A<VG=8E 0?0@0BV2 5B5>@ V !B@V;0 . # 1962 @>FV @0:5B0-=>AV9 >A<>A 2825;0 =0 >@1VBC ?5@H89 AC?CB=8: 4=V?@>?5B@>2AL:>W @>7@>1:8 !-2, 0 2 1967 @>FV @0:5B>N-=>AVT< >A<>A =0 >@1VBC 1C2 282545=89 >@VT=B>20=89 2 0B<>AD5@V AC?CB=8: >A<VG=0 AB@V;0 . 1965 @>:C 2 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:><C 1N@> V245==5 ?>G0;8AO @>1>B8 7V AB2>@5==O A5@VW <0;8E C=VDV:>20=8E AC?CB=8:V2 4;O ?@>2545==O =0C:>28E 4>A;V465=L.# A5@548=V 60-E @>:V2 702>4 V :>=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@> V245==5 ?>G0;8 @>7@>1:C :>A<VG=8E @0:5B-=>AVW2 &8:;>=" =0 107V 1>9>28E <V6:>=B8=5=B0;L=8E @0:5B -36. # 1969 @>FV 7 V=VFV0B828 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:>3> 1N@> V245==5 ?> AB2>@5==N V @50;V70FVW <V6=0@>4=>W :>A<VG=>W ?@>3@0<8 =B5@:>A<>A 2V41C;>AO 282545==O =0 >@1VBC ?5@H>3> AC?CB=8:0 -  =B5@:>A<>A-1 . # @0<:0E A?V2@>1VB=8FB20 7 $@0=FC7L:8< :>A<VG=8< F5=B@>< @>:V2 1C;8 74V9A=5=V 70?CA:8 =0C:>28E AC?CB=8:V2 A5@VW @5>; , AB2>@5=8<8 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:8< 1N@> V245==5 V .6<0H5<.0?@8:V=FV 60-E @>:V2 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@> V245==5 ?>G0B>: @>7@>1:C 02B><0B8G=8E C=V25@A0;L=8E >@1VB0;L=8E AB0=FV9 7 >@VT=B0FVTN =0 5<;N V !>=F5. >=AB@C:B>@AL:5 1N@> V245==5 V 28@>1=8G5 >1'T4=0==O .6<0H" @07>< 7 ?0@B=5@0<8 @50;V7C20;8 C=V:0;L=89 ?@>5:BC >@AL:89 AB0@B ?> AB2>@5==N @0:5B=>-:>A<VG=>3> :><?;5:AC 7 >4=>9<5==>N =072>N.5@602=8< :>=AB@C:B>@AL:8< 1N@> V245==5 C :>>?5@0FVW 7 @>AV9AL:8<8 9 C:@0W=AL:8<8 ?V4?@8T<AB20<8 1C;> AB2>@5=> :>A<VG=89 @0:5B=89 :><?;5:AC =V?@> =0 107V <V6:>=B8=5=B0;L=8E 10;VAB8G=8E @0:5B !-20 (SS-18 !0B0=0 ?> :;0A8DV:0FVW "). 0 :>=AB@C:B>@AL:V9 =82V ?@0FN20;8 B0:V 28=0EV4=8:8 O: >@>;L>2 !5@3V9 02;>28G, O:><C =0;568BL @>7@>1:0 AB@0B53VG=>W @0:5B8 -11 7 O45@=>N 1>9>2>N G0AB8=>N, B0 <>48DV:C202 ( -11$) WW 4;O 2AB0=>2;5==O =0 ?V42>4=8E G>2=0E, >=4@0BN: .@V9 0A8;L>28G @>7@0EC=:8 O:>3> 1C;8 28:>@8AB0=V 0<5@8:0=FO<8 4;O ?>;L>BC V ?>A04:8 =0 VAOFV C ?@>5:BV ?>;;>= , ;5:A0=4@ 3=0BV9>28G (0@359, I> @>7@>182 <5B>4 30;L<C20==O :>@01;O 2 0B<>AD5@V 0:BC0;L=89 V 4> =0H>3> G0AC, 0 B0:>6 810;LG8G 8:>;0 20=>28G ?@>5:B :>A<VG=>W :0?AC;8 O:>3> AB02 ?@>B>B8?>< 4;O ACG0A=8E :>A<VG=8E :>@01;V2, >ABO=B8= 4C0@4>28G &V>;:>2AL:89 I> ?5@H8< 28AC=C2 ?@>5:B @V48==>-?0;82=8E ?@8A:>@N20GV2 4;O 28E>4C =0 75<=C >@1VBC, 0 B0:>6 8E09;> /=35;L, >;>48<88@ '5;><59, I> ?@0FN20;8 2 FV9 30;C7V. /: 10G8<>, 2=5A>: C:@0W=AL:8E 2G5=8E C @>728B>: A2VB>2>W :>A<>=02B8:8 T 4>A8BL A>;V4=8< V 1030B8<.8:>@8AB0=0 ;VB5@0BC@0:>20;5FL .. #:@0W=0 V :>A<>A. ., 2002.>A<>=02B8:0. 0;0 5=F8:;>?54VO. ., 1989.AB>@VO @04O=AL:>W :>A<>=02B8:8. ., 1990.AB>@VO =0C:8 V B5E=V:8 ! ! .


Сторінки: 1 2